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在西扎的波爾圖建筑學院上學是怎樣的體驗(下)
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文章是一篇采訪,被訪者來自波爾圖建筑學院。
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Q: 西扎常說沒有什么是發明出來的,所有事物都有過去,學校的設計課是否都基于歷史背景,能舉出你的課程作業為例具體說明如何在有限制的歷史條件下創新?

Siza often said that ‘nothing is invented, there is a past for everything.’ Are most of the design courses based on the historical background? Can you use your work as an example of how to innovate under limited historical conditions?

 

A: 學校經常強調歷史對各個建筑的重要性。有趣的是某天我看到一個西扎的采訪,他在講述由他重新設計的一個大火后的里斯本歷史區域。當他設計一個地方的時候,他對自己的設計非常自信,后來他意識到這個地方在在1755年的一場地震之后就被這樣設計過。他說“難怪我感到這么確信呢,之前就有人這樣設計過!”

我覺得在我所有設計的作品里歷史限制最大的場地是一個在重要教堂旁邊的項目,需要我們理解并且尊重這個教堂,而不是遮擋這個教堂。最重要的是去理解場所和一些“規則”:如果這個新建筑周圍的層高都是兩層,那么新建筑就不應該高于或者低于周邊,如果周邊建筑立面的主要材料是磚,那么新建筑就應該包含磚這個元素。同樣理解建造的歷史并且應用到新的設計里去也很重要。

In the university it is always stressed the importance of history to each building. It is funny, on the other day I was seeing an interview someone was doing with Siza, and he was talking about an historical part of Lisbon he redid after a fire. When designing a specific area, he felt particularly proud of the design, and he noticed that it was already designed before, after an earthquake in 1755. He was saying something like: “No wonder I was proud, someone had project it before!”

I think that in the project that I did that had the most historical conditioned place we needed to work next to an important church, and to understand and respect the church, without clouding it. The most important thing is to understand the place and to understand what are the “rules”: if the buildings next to this place are all two story high, it shouldn’t be higher or lower than this, if the place has brick as the main element in the fa?ade, then the project should contain brick in some way. It is also important to understand the constructive history of the country and use it in the projects.

一層 First floor
?filipa
二層 Second floor
?filipa
底層 Ground floor
?filipa

 

立面 Facade
?filipa

Q: 西扎的作品乍一看都是白色的,可現場看他對高差、材料、光都有很多細節的處理,他也說建筑師的靈感來自于對現場的翻譯,這點影響了你設計的思考方式嗎?

Siza’s work is always white at first glance. we can tell that he has a lot of details on solution of height, material and light if we go there and see. He also said that the architect’s inspiration comes from the translation of the site, does this affect your way of thinking in design?

 

A: 當然。場地是什么樣建筑就是什么樣,場地的傳統和歷史是項目的第一個限制/特點。在我第一次去基地的時候我就開始畫出我的第一個想法,盡管不是所有的想法都會最后實現,實際上最終的方案都來自于所有的過程,這使得第一次對場地的感知對我而言很重要。西扎的建筑都有白色的立面,但是利用石材,白色表面和干凈的窗戶則更多是其特點。他對空間的控制和通過細節創造獨特場景的方法以及他把不同元素聯系在統一建筑里的能力都非常具有啟發性。

Yes, for sure. The site, the way the buildings are, the traditions and the history of each place is the first restrictions/characteristics of the project. On my first visit to each site, I start to draw my first ideas, and though not always these ideas go through to the end, the fact that the final solution comes from all of the process makes the first glance at the site so important for me. Most of Siza’s work has white facades, but the use of marble, white surfaces, and clear windows are more characteristic of his design. The way he controls the space, and creates particular views over one small detail, and the way he connects different elements into one cohesive building is truly inspiring.

 

Q: 我去了西扎的海濱浴場,覺得他的作品試圖擺脫國際性的后現代主義裝飾,他想做到對場地最大的尊重而隱藏了建筑體量,是否可以說他的風格是避免風格?

I went to Le?a swimming pools designed by Siza and felt that his work tried to get rid of the international postmodernism decoration. He wanted to hide the building mass by maximizing respect for the site. Can we say that his style is to avoid style?

 

A: 我們說他的風格是尊重場所并且適應環境的,同時盡可能輔以清晰又實用的功能。海濱浴場從結構來說是60年代的,當時歐洲其余地方都出現了一些后現代主義和粗野派,在葡萄牙建筑師仍在設計傳統的鄉村房屋,從政治上說我們沒有歐洲其他國家那樣的自由。然后有趣的是像這樣的建筑物凸顯出來,然而“隱藏”在視線里,盡可能的尊重場地,如你所說。這個建筑的服務功能都靠近入口處,然后面向大海,利用潮汐自然而然地更新游泳池水。結構全部由混凝土組成,給我們一種粗野派建筑的感覺,暴露在自然中。這是第一個觸發我很多思考的建筑,建筑應該是自然和人相統一的。

We can say that his style is to respect the site and adapt to the place, while maintaining the program as clear and functional as possible. The “Tide Swimming Pool”, as we call the structure, was made during the 60’s, and while in the rest of Europe post modernism and new brutalist designs were arising a little bit everywhere, in Portugal architects were still designing traditional vernacular buildings, because politically speaking we didn’t have the freedom the rest of Europe had. It is then so interesting to see buildings like this one that stood out, while “hiding” in the view, respecting the site as much as possible, like you said. The building has all of the services next to the entrance, and then opens to the ocean and the tides renew the swimming pool water in a natural way. The structure, all made of concrete, almost reminds us of a brutalist building, exposed to the nature. It was one of the first buildings that made me think so much about architecture as a place of both nature and men.

Le?a 海濱浴場-屋頂 Le?a swimming pools- roof
Le?a 海濱浴場-混凝土和船木 Le?a swimming pools-concrete and wood
Le?a 海濱浴場-建筑的消隱 Le?a swimming pools- hide building

Q: 大多數人熟悉葡萄牙建筑師是從二十世紀后期波爾圖的現代化改造開始的,其中以西扎在波爾圖的作品聞名,仿佛西扎的作品成了波爾圖的城市名片,你如何看建筑師在沿襲和改變城市意象中的職責?

Most people are familiar with Portuguese architects starting from the modernization of Porto in the late twentieth century, which is famous for the works of Siza , as if the works of Siza became the city card of Porto, how do you think about the architects responsibilities in aspect of continuity and evolution of city image?

 

A: 西扎在葡萄牙建筑中十分重要,當然,但在他之前還有很多建筑師,像Marques da Silva,Fernando Távora,同樣是城市構建中重要的人物。徳莫拉也是也重要的建筑師,尤其在市政工程方面,例如城市地鐵。讓城市(例如波爾圖)繼續發展是一個重要的責任,因為這是一個有很多歷史的城市。特別是有很多優秀的建筑師,在他們周邊做任何建筑都會成為挑戰,但是沒有挑戰了建筑又會是什么樣呢?然而,更新城市是必要的,然后去發展新的建筑方式。所有我提到的建筑師都有不同的設計方法,他們都不同的背景和不同個的風格,有些和其他人相似,但他們都對城市的建設作了貢獻,讓城市更好。建筑師最重要的角色就是讓城市繼續發展,有更好的職能,技術和對需求的功能有所回應。

Siza is really important in the architecture of Porto, yes, but before him there were other architects, like Marques da Silva, or Fernando Távora, that also were key figures in the structure of the city as it is today. Souto de Moura is also an important architect that is continuing this work, especially in infra-structures, as the city “metro”. It is a big responsibility to continue a city such as Porto, because it is a city with so much history, and especially with so many great architects, that building next to any of them would always be a challenge, but what would be architecture without challenges? It is, however, always necessary to renew cities, and to explore new ways of building. All of the architects I mentioned had different ways of designing, all of them came from different backgrounds with different styles, some closer than others, but all of them gave something of themselves to the construction of the city, and to make it better. The biggest role of the architect should be to continue the city on the way that can be a good functional, technical and formal response to the program needed.

 

 

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在西扎的波爾圖建筑學院上學是怎樣的體驗(上)
文章是一篇采訪,被訪者為波爾圖建筑學院的學生
馬海東 等1人贊過
2018.08.31
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